Tag Archives: America

The parents of a baby with a rare condition have lost a high court battle to keep him alive so he can undergo treatment in America

The parents of a sick baby with a rare genetic condition have lost their legal battle to keep him alive so he can undergo pioneering treatment in America, despite raising more than £1.2 million in a funding campaign.

A High Court judge today ruled that doctors at Great Ormond Street Hospital could withdraw life support from Charlie Gard and move him to a palliative care regime.

Continue reading The parents of a baby with a rare condition have lost a high court battle to keep him alive so he can undergo treatment in America

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Long-Lost Photos Reveal Life of Mexican Migrant Workers in 1950s America

World War II affected the U.S. labor market in countless ways, but in the farms of the South and West, the impact was perhaps most visible when harvest time arrived. With American workers off fighting and therefore hard to come by, Mexican farm workers were brought to the U.S. as legal guest workers known as braceros.

Mexican laborers working on a farm in California, 1957.

The program continued after the war ended, as workers continued to cross the border in search of work. That was the world documented in 1957, when the photographer Sid Avery was assigned by the Saturday Evening Post to do a story on the Bracero program.

Continue reading Long-Lost Photos Reveal Life of Mexican Migrant Workers in 1950s America

Wildside – A Book About Those Who Chose Nature

It’s almost as hard to succinctly define the book Wildside: The Enchanted Life of Hunters and Gatherers as it is to summarize the kind of people you will meet in its pages.

We’ll start with the book, though. Wildside, published in 2016 by the Berlin-based publishing and creative agency Gestalten (or, more formally, Die Gestalten Verlag), is similar to many of the other artistic volumes the company has released over the past few decades in that design plays as big a role as content.

Continue reading Wildside – A Book About Those Who Chose Nature

These haunting photos of the retail apocalypse reveal a new normal in America

The retail apocalypse has descended on America.More than 3,500 stores are expected to close across the US in the next couple of months .

Department stores like Macy’s, Sears, and JCPenney and retailers including BCBG, Abercrombie & Fitch, and Bebe have decided to close dozens of stores.

Walking through a mall in 2017 is like walking through a graveyard.

Here’s photographic proof that a retail apocalypse is hitting the US hard.

Perhaps most emblematic of the retail apocalypse are photos of dead malls.

Continue reading These haunting photos of the retail apocalypse reveal a new normal in America

Real Madrid and Barcelona to play pre-season friendly in Miami as El Clasico goes stateside

Real will play Barca in the International Champions Cup in the United States

Spanish arch-rivals Real Madrid and Barcelona will meet in a pre-season friendly in Miami on July 29 in the first “Clasico” to take place outside Spain for 35 years.

The game is part of the International Champions Cup, an annual pre-season tournament which has been going since 2013, and will take place at 65,000-capacity Hard Rock stadium, home of NFL franchise the Miami Dolphins.

Continue reading Real Madrid and Barcelona to play pre-season friendly in Miami as El Clasico goes stateside

Great-power politics – The new game

A CONTINENT separates the blood-soaked battlefields of Syria from the reefs and shoals that litter the South China Sea. In their different ways, however, both places are witnessing the most significant shift in great-power relations since the collapse of the Soviet Union.

In Syria, for the first time since the cold war, Russia has deployed its forces far from home to quell a revolution and support a client regime. In the waters between Vietnam and the Philippines,

America will soon signal that it does not recognise China’s territorial claims over a host of outcrops and reefs by exercising its right to sail within the 12-mile maritime limit that a sovereign state controls.

For the past 25 years America has utterly dominated great-power politics. Increasingly, it lives in a contested world. The new game with Russia and China that is unfolding in Syria and the South China Sea is a taste of the struggle ahead.

Facts on the ground

As ever, that struggle is being fought partly in terms of raw power. Vladimir Putin has intervened in Syria to tamp down jihadism and to bolster his own standing at home. But he also means to show that, unlike America, Russia can be trusted to get things done in the Middle East and win friends by, for example, offering Iraq an alternative to the United States (see article).

Lest anyone presume with John McCain, an American senator, that Russia is just “a gas station masquerading as a country”, Mr Putin intends to prove that Russia possesses resolve, as well as crack troops and cruise missiles.

The struggle is also over legitimacy. Mr Putin wants to discredit America’s stewardship of the international order. America argues that popular discontent and the Syrian regime’s abuses of human rights disqualify the president, Bashar al-Assad, from power. Mr Putin wants to play down human rights, which he sees as a licence for the West to interfere in sovereign countries—including, if he ever had to impose a brutal crackdown, in Russia itself.

Power and legitimacy are no less at play in the South China Sea, a thoroughfare for much of the world’s seaborne trade. Many of its islands, reefs and sandbanks are subject to overlapping claims. Yet China insists that its case should prevail, and is imposing its own claim by using landfill and by putting down airstrips and garrisons.

This is partly an assertion of rapidly growing naval might: China is creating islands because it can. Occupying them fits into its strategy of dominating the seas well beyond its coast. Twenty years ago American warships sailed there with impunity; today they find themselves in potentially hostile waters (see article).

But a principle is at stake, too. America does not take a view on who owns the islands, but it does insist that China should establish its claims through negotiation or international arbitration. China is asserting that in its region, for the island disputes as in other things, it now sets the rules.

Nobody should wonder that America’s pre-eminence is being contested. After the Soviet collapse the absolute global supremacy of the United States sometimes began to seem normal. In fact, its dominance reached such heights only because Russia was reeling and China was still emerging from the chaos and depredations that had so diminished it in the 20th century.

Even today, America remains the only country able to project power right across the globe. (As we have recently argued, its sway over the financial system is still growing.)

There is nevertheless reason to worry. The reassertion of Russian power spells trouble. It has already led to the annexation of Crimea and the invasion of eastern Ukraine—both breaches of the very same international law that Mr Putin says he upholds in Syria (seearticle).

Barack Obama, America’s president, takes comfort from Russia’s weak economy and the emigration of some of its best people. But a declining nuclear-armed former superpower can cause a lot of harm.

Relations between China and America are more important—and even harder to manage. For the sake of peace and prosperity, the two must be able to work together.

And yet their dealings are inevitably plagued by rivalry and mistrust. Because every transaction risks becoming a test of which one calls the shots, antagonism is never far below the surface.

American foreign policy has not yet adjusted to this contested world. For the past three presidents, policy has chiefly involved the export of American values—although, to the countries on the receiving end, that sometimes felt like an imposition.

The idea was that countries would inevitably gravitate towards democracy, markets and human rights. Optimists thought that even China was heading in that direction.

Still worth it

That notion has suffered, first in Iraq and Afghanistan and now the wider Middle East. Liberation has not brought stability. Democracy has not taken root.

Mr Obama has seemed to conclude that America should pull back. In Libya he led from behind; in Syria he has held off. As a result, he has ceded Russia the initiative in the Middle East for the first time since the 1970s.

All those, like this newspaper, who still see democracy and markets as the route to peace and prosperity hope that America will be more willing to lead.

Mr Obama’s wish that other countries should share responsibility for the system of international law and human rights will work only if his country sets the agenda and takes the initiative—as it did with Iran’s nuclear programme. The new game will involve tough diplomacy and the occasional judicious application of force.

America still has resources other powers lack. Foremost is its web of alliances, including NATO. Whereas Mr Obama sometimes behaves as if alliances are transactional, they need solid foundations. America’s military power is unmatched, but it is hindered by pork-barrel politics and automatic cuts mandated by Congress.

These spring from the biggest brake on American leadership: dysfunctional politics in Washington. That is not just a poor advertisement for democracy; it also stymies America’s interest. In the new game it is something that the United States—and the world—can ill afford.

Understanding the racial bias you didn’t know you had

Barack Obama has been confused with a valet.  Teachers have lower expectations for black and Hispanic students. Jurors are more likely to see darker-skinned defendants as guilty.

Sure, you could throw all of these things under the broad category of racism. But some of these disparities are often perpetuated by people who insist that they believe with all their hearts in racial equality.

IT SEEPS INTO JUST ABOUT EVERY ASPECT OF LIFE

There’s a term for what’s happening when, despite our best intentions and without our awareness, racial stereotypes and assumptions creep into our minds and affect our actions:  implicit racial bias.

It seeps into just about every aspect of life, including areas like criminal justice that can have deadly consequences. Thirty years of neurology and cognitive psychology studies show that it influences the way we see and treat others, even when we’re absolutely determined to be, and believe we are being, fair and objective.

That’s why implicit racial bias has been called “the new diversity paradigm — one that recognizes the role that bias plays in the day-to-day functioning of all human beings.”

Here’s what you need to know about how it works.

What is implicit bias?

(Shutterstock)

The first step in understanding how implicit racial bias works is to understand the general concept of implicit bias, which can shape the way we think about lots of different qualities: age, gender, nationality, even height.

You can think of it generally as  “thoughts about people you didn’t know you had.”

Two of the leading scholars in the field, Mahzarin Banaji and Anthony G. Greenwald, capture it well in the title of a book they wrote about the concept. It’s called “Blindspot: Hidden Biases of Good People

YOU CAN THINK OF IT GENERALLY AS  “THOUGHTS ABOUT PEOPLE YOU DIDN’T KNOW YOU HAD”

What do these “blind spots” look like, and how do they shape behavior?  Well, if you have a stereotype about Asian people that labels them as “foreign,” implicit bias means you might have trouble associating even Asian-American people with speaking fluent English or being American citizens. If you’ve picked up on cultural cues that women are homemakers, it means you might have a harder time connecting women to powerful roles in business despite your conscious belief in gender equality.

The effects aren’t always negative: if you have a positive attitude about your alma mater, implicit bias could mean you feel more at ease around someone who you know also graduated from there than you do around people who went to other schools.

But there are a couple of things make implicit bias especially fascinating and potentially insidious:

First, since our thoughts often determine our actions, implicit bias can lead to discriminatory behaviors (more on those below). Second, it is impossible to detect without taking a test. In other words, you can’t sit down and do introspection about your biases, and you can’t just decide not to let them affect your attitudes and actions. Implicit bias lives deep in your subconscious, and it is largely separate from the biases you know you have.

How does implicit racial bias affect the way we think about race?

(Shutterstock)

Implicit bias comes from the messages, attitudes, and stereotypes we pick up from the world we live in, and research over time and from different countries shows that it tends to line up with general social hierarchies.

Studies have shown that people have implicit biases that favor Germans over Turks (in Germany), Japanese over Koreans (in Japan), men over women (when it comes to career-related stereotypes), youth over elderly, and straight people over gay people.

So, it’s no surprise race is a prime area for implicit bias, and if you live in America, you can probably make an educated guess about some of the ways it tends to play out: among other things, there’s a widespread preference for light skinned over dark skinned and white over black.

How is this related to regular old racism?

(Shutterstock)

Implicit racial bias tends to work against the same groups that are the victims of the type of overt racism that you hear from white supremacists or the more subtle bigotry of people who believe that racial minorities suffer from cultural pathology or who actively defend racial and ethnic stereotypes.

But it can also affect the minds of people who would say — honestly — that they are horrified by these types of attitudes. That’s because the implicit associations we hold often don’t align with our declared beliefs.

THE IMPLICIT ASSOCIATIONS WE HOLD OFTEN DON’T ALIGN WITH OUR DECLARED BELIEFS

As Cynthia Lee, a professor at the George Washington University School of Law, has explained, “the social science research demonstrates that one does not have to be a racist with a capital R, or one who intentionally discriminates on the basis of race, to harbor implicit racial biases.”

In all areas touched by implicit bias, including race, we tend to hold biases that favor the group that we belong to (what researchers call our “ingroup”). But research has shown that we can also hold implicit biases against our ingroup. So yes, white Americans generally have implicit biases against other races, but racial minorities can hold implicit biases against themselves, too. These results are rarely reflective of conscious attitudes.

How do you figure out whether you have implicit racial bias?

To evaluate implicit bias, scientists mostly use tests that measure reaction time and rely on the idea that if we closely associate two concepts in our minds, they’ll be easy for us to sort together. And if we don’t associate them, they’ll be harder, and take more time, to sort together.

The most popular of these tests is the Implicit Association Test, or IAT. Anthony Greenwald and his colleagues invented it in the mid-1990s. An organization called Project Implicit, maintained by Greenwald, Mahzarin Banjai, and Brian Nosek, allows people to take it online. The test is basically a video game that you play on a computer, the object of which is to sort categories of pictures and words.

An image from an implicit bias test at Project Implicit

An image from an implicit-bias test at Project Implicit

Here’s an example of how it measures implicit racial bias: in the black-white race attitude test, test takers are asked to sort pictures of white and black people’s faces, and positive and negative words, by pressing one of two keys on the keyboard. It turns out that most people are able to do this more quickly when the white faces and positive words are assigned to the same key (black faces and negative words are assigned to the other key), compared with when white faces and negative words are assigned to the same key (and black faces and positive words are assigned to the other key). The difference in the time it takes a user to respond in different situations is the measure of implicit bias. Try a test yourself at Project Implicit.

“[M]Y HANDS WERE LITERALLY FROZEN WHEN I HAD TO ASSOCIATE BLACK WITH GOOD”

Here’s how Banaji explained the way taking the IAT feels, in a 2013 interview with the Boston Globe:

“So when I took the test … it was stunning for me to discover that my hands were literally frozen when I had to associate black with good. It’s like I couldn’t find the key on the keyboard, and doing the other version, the white-good, black-bad version was trivial. So the first thought that I had was: ‘Something’s wrong with this test.’ Three seconds later, it sunk in that this test was telling me something so important that it would require a re-evaluation of my mind, not of the test.”

How do the implicit racial biases the IAT reveals play out in reality?

Implicit racial bias can shape our beliefs and assumptions, color the way we treat other people, and even help decide what “feels true” for us when it comes to larger social and political issues.

Banaji explained that in one version of the IAT, researchers took famous Asian Americans such as Connie Chung and Michael Chang and Kristi Yamaguchi and picked white foreigners such as Hugh Grant, Katarina Witt, and Gerard Depardieu, and asked test takers to connect them to American symbols and foreign symbols. They found it was easier to associate Hugh Grant with American symbols than Connie Chung. “That shows how deeply the category ‘American’ is white” in many people’s minds, she said.

IT WAS EASIER TO ASSOCIATE HUGH GRANT WITH AMERICAN SYMBOLS THAN CONNIE CHUNG

She went on to explain what she said were the connotations of implicit bias when it comes to politics: “The reason I especially like that result is that in the first Obama election and since then, the issue has come up about these ‘birthers,’ and I think what we captured there was a little bit of a birther in all of us. I think this is where conscious attitudes matter. You and I say, ‘I consciously know Barack Obama was born in this country, and I believe this because the evidence is there.’ For some people who we might write off as the lunatic fringe, the association to be American is to be white. I can see for them that feels true.”

What are the main areas in which implicit racial bias affects our everyday lives?

Implicit biases are pervasive.  Researchers say everyone possesses them, even people like judges, who have avowed commitments to impartiality.

And they don’t just stay tucked away in our unconscious until they’re revealed by a computer game. They determine how we behave. There is increasing evidence that implicit bias — including implicit racial bias, which the IAT measures — predicts behavior in the real world. This behavior, of course, harms the people who are members of groups that are the subjects of negative implicit bias.

For example, research has shown that it can affect healthcare: in one study, despite self-reporting very little explicit bias, two out of three clinicians were found to harbor implicit bias against blacks and Latinos. And it turns out that this affected the care that black patients got: the stronger the clinicians’ implicit bias against blacks relative to whites, the lower the black patients rated them on all four sub-scales of patient-centered care. It’s also been connected to racial discrimination in hiring, performance evaluations, housing discrimination, and even perceptions of neighborhood crime.

How does implicit bias affect criminal justice?

(Shutterstock)

Criminal justice — from arrests, to police shootings, to juries’ perceptions of defendants — is such a rich area for implicit racial bias to operate that it deserves its own separate discussion.

To understand the gaping racial disparities in criminal justice, it helps to understand implicit bias. As Vox’s German Lopez has explained:

Part of the problem is outright racism among some judges and cops, socioeconomic disparities that can drive more crime, and drug laws that disproportionately affect black Americans. But the other explanation is that cops, like everyone else, carry this implicit bias, which experts agree affects how they police people of different races. Since these are the people who carry out the initial steps of law enforcement, this bias might launch a cascading effect of racial disparities that starts with simple arrests and ends in prison or death.

These are a few ways implicit bias has been found to operate at every level of the criminal-justice system:

Can you get rid of implicit racial bias?

The good news is that there is some evidence that implicit biases, including implicit racial biases, are malleable.

THERE ARE STUDIES THAT DEMONSTRATE THAT YOU CAN AT LEAST PRODUCE SHIFTS

Several different approaches have shown promise for getting rid of implicit bias, generally, which all apply to implicit racial bias, too.

  • Counter-stereotypic training: People can be trained, using visual or verbal cues, to develop new associations that contrast with the stereotypes they hold.
  • Exposure to individuals who defy stereotypes:  Being made aware of people who challenge the assumptions that fuel our biases — for example, male nurses, elderly athletes, or female scientists — has shown potential to decrease them.
  • Intergroup contact: Simply having contact with the people about whom you have bias can reduce it. But researchers have found the contact typically has to involve individuals sharing equal status and common goals, a cooperative rather than competitive environment, and the presence of support from authority figures, laws, or customs.
  • Education efforts aimed at raising awareness about implicit bias: the criminal-justice and health-care realms especially have embraced this approach.
  • Taking the perspective of others: considering contrasting viewpoints and recognizing multiple perspectives can reduce automatic implicit bias.
  • Mindfulness-meditation techniques: new research suggests that these can reduce implicit bias by short-circuiting negative associations.

While these methods are promising, implicit biases are really tough to shake. As Banaji told the Boston Globe, “I would say we should not be naïve about how easily we can change them. On the other hand, there are studies that demonstrate that you can at least produce shifts.”

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